To help you gauge the size of the community away from face-to-face check out tids site family relations, those things from the Contentment Questionnaire Display (Helliwell and you may Huang, 2013) were used: “Everything just how many household members do you have?.” This concern is responded toward a measure of 1 lower than 5 nearest and dearest so you can 5 more 50 nearest and dearest. Issue to evaluate how big online pal networking sites is actually equivalent (Helliwell and you may Huang, 2013): “Everything how many family relations are you experiencing to the Twitter?” but the response measure try some other, anywhere between step one below 50 to eight over a thousand.
All the questions for the quality of matchmaking found in the fresh new Eu Societal Questionnaire had been adjusted to assess top-notch deal with-to-face and online relationships. The questions was basically: “Just how many persons do you have which have who you can speak about sexual and private issues?” and you may “How many of these individuals are their Twitter loved ones?.” Brand new impulse measure ranged from a single (none) so you’re able to eight (10 or even more).
A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.
So you’re able to determine future health, as well as the detected health product will used in in the world studies (e.g., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How do you speed your wellbeing generally” with responses on the a 5-part level, ranging from decent so you can terrible) this new five bits of the future health measurement of the County of Wellness Questionnaire SF-thirty six (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992) was in fact provided. A typical example of all the questions are: “We appear to become ill a small simpler than other some body.” These materials was responded to the a good 5-section measure, anywhere between step one certainly false to help you 5 definitely correct. The five products shown an adequate reliability (? = 0.72) together with mediocre of five circumstances are determined because the indicator off care about-reported physical health.
Psychological state was examined through five circumstances regarding the SF-thirty-six (Ware and you can Sherbourne, 1992). An example is “How frequently have you ever sensed really nervous in the last 4 days?.” These issues have been responded towards the a beneficial 5-part measure, between not to always. Because number of inner texture of the items is an excellent (? = 0.80), the signal away from mental health is actually computed, averaging the brand new solutions these types of five concerns.
The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.
The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.